Inside the for each case, the questions concerned about both deal with-to-deal with an internet-based relationship

Inside the for each case, the questions concerned about both deal with-to-deal with an internet-based relationship


To help you gauge the measurements of the latest system of face-to-face loved ones, the things throughout the Happiness Questionnaire Display screen (Helliwell and you can Huang, 2013) were used: “As much as just how many loved ones have you got?.” It matter try responded into the a scale of just one lower than 5 family relations to help you 5 more fifty friends. Practical question to assess how big is on the web buddy systems try similar (Helliwell and you can Huang, 2013): “Approximately exactly how many loved ones are you experiencing to the Facebook?” however the impulse measure are additional, between step one below fifty to 8 over a thousand.

The questions on quality of matchmaking utilized in new matchbox reviews European Public Questionnaire were adjusted to evaluate top-notch deal with-to-face and online relationships. All the questions had been: “How many individuals have you got that have who you is also explore intimate and private things?” and you will “How many of them people is the Fb nearest and dearest?.” Brand new effect size ranged from (none) to seven (ten or higher).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


To help you evaluate future health, also the perceived health items often utilized in in the world surveys (elizabeth.grams., Eriksson et al., 2001 – “How will you speed your wellbeing typically” with answers towards an excellent 5-part measure, anywhere between decent to help you very bad) the latest five items of brand new future health measurement of one’s Condition off Wellness Questionnaire SF-36 (Ware and you may Sherbourne, 1992) was in fact included. A typical example of the questions is actually: “I apparently become ill a little much easier than other anybody.” These things was basically replied to the a good 5-part measure, ranging from 1 positively not the case so you’re able to 5 certainly real. The 5 situations shown a sufficient accuracy (? = 0.72) and average of the four issues are determined just like the sign out-of notice-reported health.

Psychological state try reviewed via five factors regarding SF-36 (Ware and you can Sherbourne, 1992). An example was “How often maybe you’ve considered extremely nervous in the last 4 months?.” These issues was indeed answered to the a beneficial 5-point measure, between to not ever usually. Just like the level of interior structure of the things that are an effective (? = 0.80), this new signal out-of psychological state is calculated, averaging this new solutions to the five inquiries.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.

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